Corpus-based Data Driven Learning


Words such as 'evidence', 'research' or 'source' are often used to refer to the literature. Study the following concordance lines and observe how evidence is used, paying particular attention to the words that follow or after the word. Attention, Chinese learners frequently treat evidence as a countable noun. It is a collective noun and never used with a plural ending 's'! Evidences = !


language learning with a focus on form; Long & Crookes, 1993). Evidence suggests that acquiring pronunciation is no different from a

These phenomena require 6extensive further research. Preliminary evidence suggests that native listeners can benefit from training to

speech signal to meaning-bearing items of vocabulary. They confirm evidence reported elsewhere (Field, 2004) of a strategic approac

as syllable-based (Spanish, Italian, and Korean). Level of English The evidence reported so far appears to indicate that the accurate

Shu, Anderson, & Zhang, 1995; Wode, 1999) rather than on empirical evidence showing significant gains on particular words. Even in

vocabulary has great influence on language learning. Recognising the evidence showing that teaching can broaden learners' knowledge

idence of the Relationship Between Labels Although there is no hard evidence to connect the convergent-divergent thinking style with

posttest were significant. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test demonstrated evidence to suggest that these data were not normally distribut

pacity to engage in repair. Nevertheless, there is still no clear evidence to confirm these proposals about the inability of students to

prototypical native patterns of association. Schmitt (2000: 40) cites evidence to show that the shift occurs in a different order for

sequences in which interpretation could be supported by additional evidence such as non - verbal cues from the videotapes were

translates into improved learning. The literature has reported ample evidence that student motivation and learning achievement are

how frequent they are and how closely they resemble the stimulus. As evidence accumulates, one item achieves such a high level of

drawn. The data are then analyzed to see if they produce convincing evidence that the null hypothesis is not tenable. This evidence

to enhance student motivation, yet the literature has little empirical evidence to support this claim. Based on a large-scale investigation

t, from a scientific point of view, intuitive appeal without empirical evidence was not enough to justify strong claims in favor of using

is taught immersion style as a foreign language. There is growing evidence that teacher-initiated efforts such as these can do much

intimately tied to speaker identity and group membership. Increasing evidence also shows that the context of instruction directly

about the time and occurrence of every keystroke, providing indirect evidence of cognitive activity during online writing. As an obs

tract and reductive in nature or that it provides partial and indirect evidence that, though detailed, is removed from the context of

terstress intervals in several languages that there is no instrumental evidence for the stress - timed/syllable - timed dichotomy in speech

gful, concrete information, accurate and specific data and irrefutable evidence. 6 It focuses on behavior rather than the person. 7 It is

they want, but this reasoning is incongruent with available research evidence on ultimate attainment in pronunciation. Although some

sometimes been characterised as a threshold phenomenon, though the evidence for this is not decisive (Lee & Schallert, 1997). In

matical structure, but who were exposed to that structure, showed evidence of learning. It is important to point out, however, that all

atically mean utilization of that strategy. Instead, a diary can show evidence of the exploration, explanation and even possible rejection

English, and cued recall (with pictures as cues). The results provided evidence of an inverse relationship between the semantic and

interactions were substantiated in Anton's interviews. They provided evidence of his use of schoolbased scripts and his unfamiliarity or

they would like to work with on a science project. In addition to the evidence from observations and transcripts of classroom interac

of pronunciation, but they do not in themselves constitute sufficient evidence about learners' abilities or about the effects of instruction

ency, amount of text produced, and pause and revision behavior are evidenced in the data, although an association with the quality of

VKS awarded one point if a correct meaning was demonstrated (as evidenced by an acceptable English synonym, English definition,

pite teachers' increased interest in pronunciation in recent years, as evidenced by the establishment of a TESOL interest section and a

gradual improvement in linguistic proficiency and writing skills is evidenced, reflecting to some extent the corrections and feedback tha

be (1998). In that study, two groups of ESL students, all of whom evidenced both segmental and suprasegmental production difficulties


Exercise 1: Which of the following meanings of evidence do you think are correct? (True/False)

1. Information indicating that something is or may be true.  1-1

2. A single study that has been done.     1-2

3. The origin of certain information.       1-3

4. A judgment in a court of law.            1-4

5. Support a claim with proof.               1-5



Exercise 2: List some of the adjectives that often precede 'evidence'.



Exercise 3: Classify these adjectives and see how many categories you can come up with.



Exercise 4: List some of the common verbs that are before or after 'evidence'.





Exercise 5: Please use the infinitive verb forms provided to complete the following concordance lines. Some words may be used twice.   Suggest, argue, investigate, support

Suggest, argue, investigate, support

1. Fishman then goes on to claim that there is evidence to the view that the world economy has entered a new capitalist phase.

2. such as the key-word method for learning vocabulary, there is also evidence to that learners will resist using the strategies they are taught if they feel their existing strategies are effective.

3. Soderman (1993, cited in Schmitt, 2000: 41) provides further evidence to Meara’s fifth point. In her studies, the L2 learners of English ...

4. That has not discouraged some scholars from using this kind of evidence to that language evolved late; but on examination ...

5. between what the bonobo does and what humans do. 5. Neurobiological Evidence to systematically the relationship between ...






Answer Key

Here are the answers:

Exercise 1
1-1. Your answer is:    

Answer: True                 Back to the questions

1-2. Your answer is:    

Answer: False                 Back to the questions

1-3. Your answer is:    

Answer: False                 Back to the questions

1-4. Your answer is:    

Answer: False                 Back to the questions

1-5. Your answer is:    

Answer: True                 Back to the questions


Exercise 2. Your answer is:

empirical, convincing, additional, sufficient, indirect, etc.

Back to the questions

Exercise 3. Your answer is:

* Two categories: type/quality (convincing, empirical, indirect, research, etc.) and quantity (ample, sufficient, growing, increasing, etc.)

Back to the questions

Exercise 4. Your answer is:

* provide/show evidence; evidence suggest/report/show  (answers are highlighted in blue)

Back to the questions