Corpus tasks at discourse level

 

 

Task 5

·             Make a comparison of the 3-gram (word cluster) in the learners and experts corpus. Follow the procedures below step by step: 1) classify the clusters into NP, VP, AdjP, AdvP and PP etc; 2) classify the NPs into sub-categories such as participants, issues and language; 3) decide the functions of the sub-classified NPs; 4) classify the VPs (including clauses such as ‘there is a…’, or it is important...’) and identify their functions; 5) classify PPs into sub-categories such as time, place, reference, (part of) argument etc. This exercise is for you to observe the relation between function and form.

 

Learner 3-Gram Cluster

No

Learner 3-Gram Cluster

Token

Classification

1

IN ORDER TO

180

 

2

THE MEANING OF

143

 

3

IN HONG KONG

141

 

4

THE USE OF

103

 

5

ONE OF THE

86

 

6

OF THE WORD

85

 

7

MEANING OF THE

83

 

8

THE NEW WORDS

83

 

9

MOST OF THE

71

 

10

IN TERMS OF

68

 

11

ACCORDING TO THE

66

 

12

DIRECT ERROR FEEDBACK

66

 

13

AS WELL AS

65

 

14

INDIRECT ERROR FEEDBACK

65

 

15

OF THE STUDENTS

63

 

16

TEACHING AND LEARNING

61

 

17

VOCABULARY LEARNING STRATEGIES

59

 

18

IN THIS STUDY

56

 

19

TO FIND OUT

56

 

20

FOR STUDENTS TO

55

 

21

OF THE WORDS

55

 

22

ON THE OTHER

55

 

23

THE OTHER HAND

54

 

24

THE STUDENTS TO

51

 

25

TO HELP STUDENTS

50

 

26

A LOT OF

47

 

27

THERE IS A

46

 

28

OF VOCABULARY LEARNING

45

 

29

ON THE INTERNET

44

 

30

IT IS NOT

43

 

31

WERE ASKED TO

43

 

32

SO AS TO

41

 

33

THE PRESENT STUDY

41

 

34

BASED ON THE

40

 

35

DUE TO THE

40

 

36

KNOWLEDGE OF THE

40

 

37

A NUMBER OF

39

 

38

IT IS A

39

 

39

THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

39

 

40

IN THE CLASSROOM

37

 

41

THE LITERATURE CIRCLES

37

 

42

THE PROCESS OF

37

 

43

TO THE STUDENTS

37

 

44

BE ABLE TO

36

 

45

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF

36

 

46

THE TEACHING OF

36

 

47

IN OTHER WORDS

35

 

48

IT WAS FOUND

35

 

49

THE NUMBER OF

35

 

50

THE STUDENTS WERE

35

 

51

FOUND THAT THE

34

 

52

IN THIS RESEARCH

34

 

53

THAT IT IS

34

 

54

THE ROLE OF

34

 

55

UNDERSTANDING OF THE

34

 

56

A NEW WORD

33

 

57

TO USE THE

33

 

58

WORDS IN THE

33

 

59

AT THE SAME

32

 

60

HONG KONG PRIMARY

32

 

61

IN THE FIRST

32

 

62

OF NEW WORDS

32

 

63

OF WORD CLASS

32

 

64

SOME OF THE

32

 

65

WAS FOUND THAT

32

 

66

THE IMPORTANCE OF

31

 

67

THE RESULTS OF

31

 

68

AS A RESULT

30

 

69

IT IS ALSO

30

 

70

OF SOUND ARTICULATION

30

 

71

OF THE PARTICIPANTS

30

 

72

THEY DO NOT

30

 

73

IT CAN BE

29

 

74

OF A WORD

29

 

75

OF THE NEW

29

 

76

TEACHERS AND STUDENTS

29

 

77

TEACHING OF SOUND

29

 

78

THAT THERE ARE

29

 

79

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN

29

 

80

TO LEARN ENGLISH

29

 

81

OF THE VOCABULARY

28

 

82

SCHMITT 2000 P

28

 

83

THE FACT THAT

28

 

84

ARE ABLE TO

27

 

85

BECAUSE OF THE

27

 

86

HONG KONG EFL

27

 

87

IN WHICH THE

27

 

88

MODIFICATIONS OF QUESTIONS

27

 

89

OF DIRECT ERROR

27

 

90

OF ERROR CORRECTION

27

 

91

SO THAT THEY

27

 

92

STUDENTS WERE ASKED

27

 

93

THE HONG KONG

27

 

94

HELP STUDENTS TO

26

 

95

IN THIS WAY

26

 

96

OF THIS STUDY

26

 

97

RELATED TO THE

26

 

98

THE END OF

26

 

99

THE SAME TIME

26

 

100

FOR THE STUDENTS

25

 

101

FOR THEM TO

25

 

102

HELP THEM TO

25

 

103

I DON T

25

 

104

IN THE CLASS

25

 

105

IN THE READING

25

 

106

IT IS IMPORTANT

25

 

107

NEW WORDS IN

25

 

108

OF ENGLISH WORDS

25

 

109

WOULD LIKE TO

25

 

110

A VARIETY OF

24

 

111

BY THE TEACHER

24

 

112

IT SEEMS THAT

24

 

113

READING ALOUD IN

24

 

114

THEY DID NOT

24

 

115

TO UNDERSTAND THE

24

 

116

AT THE END

23

 

117

BIG BOOK STORYTELLING

23

 

118

ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING

23

 

119

FIND OUT THE

23

 

120

IN MAINLAND CHINA

23

 

121

IN THE WORD

23

 

122

IS ONE OF

23

 

123

MAY NOT BE

23

 

124

POINTED OUT THAT

23

 

125

STUDENTS TO LEARN

23

 

126

WITH THE NET

23

 

127

ATTENTION TO THE

22

 

128

CONTENT OF THE

22

 

129

DO NOT HAVE

22

 

130

IN KEY STAGE

22

 

131

IN THE LESSON

22

 

132

IN THE VOCABULARY

22

 

133

OF THE TEXT

22

 

134

PART OF SPEECH

22

 

135

SEEMS TO BE

22

 

136

THE CURRENT STUDY

22

 

137

THE PURPOSE OF

22

 

138

TO IMPROVE THEIR

22

 

139

TO MAKE THE

22

 

140

TO TEACH STUDENTS

22

 

141

USE OF THE

22

 

142

FOCUS ON THE

21

 

143

FROM THE CONTEXT

21

 

144

GUESS THE MEANING

21

 

145

IN LINE WITH

21

 

146

KNOW HOW TO

21

 

147

MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION

21

 

148

MOST OF THEM

21

 

149

OF VOCABULARY ACQUISITION

21

 

150

SUCH AS THE

21

 

151

THAT IT WAS

21

 

152

THAT THEY CAN

21

 

153

THE HELP OF

21

 

154

THE TARGETED WORD

21

 

155

THE TYPES OF

21

 

156

THERE IS NO

21

 

157

WELL AS THE

21

 

158

ACCORDING TO THEIR

20

 

159

DO YOU THINK

20

 

160

DON T KNOW

20

 

161

ENGLISH AS A

20

 

162

IMPORTANT ROLE IN

20

 

163

IN THIS PAPER

20

 

164

NEED TO BE

20

 

165

NEW WORDS AND

20

 

166

OF HONG KONG

20

 

167

OF LEARNING VOCABULARY

20

 

168

OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE

20

 

169

STUDENTS ATTITUDES TOWARDS

20

 

170

THAT THE STUDENTS

20

 

171

THAT THERE IS

20

 

172

THAT THEY ARE

20

 

173

THE CONTENT OF

20

 

174

THE MOST IMPORTANT

20

 

175

THE WORDS IN

20

 

176

TO DO THE

20

 

177

WERE REQUIRED TO

20

 

178

WORDS CAN BE

20

 

 

Expert 3-Gram Cluster

No

Expert 3-Gram Cluster

Token

Classification

1

AS WELL AS

120

 

2

THE UNITED STATES

111

 

3

IN TERMS OF

99

 

4

IN THE UNITED

87

 

5

IN THIS STUDY

82

 

6

THE CBI COURSE

74

 

7

ETHNIC GROUP AFFILIATION

72

 

8

A NUMBER OF

68

 

9

HONG KONG ENGLISH

68

 

10

IN ORDER TO

67

 

11

THE CURRENT STUDY

57

 

12

ONE OF THE

56

 

13

THE NUMBER OF

55

 

14

SOME OF THE

52

 

15

THE USE OF

52

 

16

THE ROLE OF

50

 

17

THE FACT THAT

48

 

18

THE EFFECTS OF

46

 

19

IN THIS ARTICLE

41

 

20

SUCH AS THE

41

 

21

IN WHICH THE

40

 

22

THE IMPORTANCE OF

37

 

23

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN

37

 

24

EXTENT TO WHICH

35

 

25

IT IS NOT

35

 

26

THE EXTENT TO

35

 

27

SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH

33

 

28

IN THE CASE

32

 

29

PART OF THE

32

 

30

THE CASE OF

32

 

31

A RANGE OF

31

 

32

IN THE CBI

31

 

33

THE PHONOLOGICAL LOOP

31

 

34

A SET OF

30

 

35

HIS OR HER

30

 

36

IN THE CLASSROOM

30

 

37

OF THIS STUDY

30

 

38

A SECOND LANGUAGE

29

 

39

OF POSITIVE FEEDBACK

29

 

40

THE ABILITY TO

29

 

41

THE RESULTS OF

29

 

42

A VARIETY OF

28

 

43

IN OTHER WORDS

28

 

44

NATIVE SPEAKERS OF

28

 

45

RELATED TO THE

28

 

46

AS A RESULT

27

 

47

BETWEEN THE TWO

27

 

48

THE CONTEXT OF

27

 

49

THE END OF

27

 

50

BE ABLE TO

26

 

51

OF THE LANGUAGE

26

 

52

SEE E G

26

 

53

THE FORM OF

26

 

54

THE TARGET LANGUAGE

26

 

55

THERE IS A

26

 

56

WITH REGARD TO

26

 

57

AT THE SAME

25

 

58

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE

25

 

59

EACH OF THE

25

 

60

THE BASIS OF

25

 

61

BASED ON THE

24

 

62

IN ENGLISH AND

24

 

63

IN THE L2

24

 

64

IN THIS WAY

24

 

65

L2 VOCABULARY LEARNING

24

 

66

MORE LIKELY TO

24

 

67

THE HONG KONG

24

 

68

THE MAJORITY OF

24

 

69

THE PARTICIPANTS WERE

24

 

70

THERE WAS A

24

 

71

ACCORDING TO THE

23

 

72

AT THE TIME

23

 

73

IN ADDITION TO

23

 

74

IN RELATION TO

23

 

75

MAY NOT BE

23

 

76

PROPORTION OF CORRECT

23

 

77

THE DEVELOPMENT OF

23

 

78

THE EFFECT OF

23

 

79

THE LEVEL OF

23

 

80

THE TIME OF

23

 

81

A NATIVE SPEAKER

22

 

82

BECAUSE OF THE

22

 

83

ENGLISH AS A

22

 

84

NATURE OF THE

22

 

85

OF THE STUDENTS

22

 

86

ON THE BASIS

22

 

87

THE NATURE OF

22

 

88

THE TARGET WORDS

22

 

89

TO BE A

22

 

90

WITH RESPECT TO

22

 

91

ALL OF THE

21

 

92

MANY OF THE

21

 

93

OF HONG KONG

21

 

94

OF THE TARGET

21

 

95

OF THE WORD

21

 

96

SECOND LANGUAGE L2

21

 

97

THE BRITISH ENGLISH

21

 

98

ATTENTION TO THE

20

 

99

END OF THE

20

 

100

ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS

20

 

101

IN THE BNC

20

 

102

IN THE CURRENT

20

 

103

IT IS IMPORTANT

20

 

104

L2 TO L1

20

 

105

LEARNERS OF ENGLISH

20

 

106

LIKELY TO BE

20

 

107

OF THE STUDY

20

 

108

ON THE OTHER

20

 

109

SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

20

 

110

SHE DID NOT

20

 

111

TERMS OF THE

20

 

112

THE ACQUISITION OF

20

 

113

THE PURPOSE OF

20

 

114

THE SAME TIME

20

 

115

VERSION OF THE

20